Tag Archives: Ewa Goldys

Amperometric sensing device to detect cytokines

10 September 2018:

A new paper with CNBP co-authors Prof Mark Hutchinson, Prof Ewa Goldys and Dr Guozhen Liu demonstrates an amperometric sensing device based on graphene oxide (GO) and structure-switching aptamers for long-term detection of cytokines in a living organism.

Journal: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces.

Publication title: Graphene Oxide Based Recyclable in Vivo Device for Amperometric Monitoring of Interferon-γ in Inflammatory Mice.

Authors: Chaomin Cao, Ronghua Jin, Hui Wei, Wenchao Yang, Ewa M. Goldys, Mark R. Hutchinson, Shiyu Liu, Xin Chen, Guangfu Yang, and Guozhen Liu.

Abstract: Cytokine sensing is challenging due to their typically low abundances in physiological conditions. Nanomaterial fabricated interfaces demonstrated unique advantages in ultrasensitive sensing. Here, we demonstrate an amperometric sensing device based on graphene oxide (GO) and structure-switching aptamers for long-term detection of cytokines in a living organism. The device incorporates a single layer of GO acting as a signal amplifier on glassy carbon electrodes. The hairpin aptamers specific to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were loaded with redox probes, are covalently attached to GO to serve as biorecognition moieties. IFN-γ was able to trigger the configuration change of aptamers while releasing the trapped redox probes to introduce the electrochemical signal. This in vivo device was capable of quantitatively and dynamically detecting IFN-γ down to 1.3 pg mL–1 secreted by immune cells in cell culture medium with no baseline drift even at a high concentration of other nonspecific proteins. The biocompatible devices were also implanted into subcutaneous tissue of enteritis mice, where they performed precise detection of IFN-γ over 48 h without using physical barriers or active drift correction algorithms. Moreover, the device could be reused even after multiple rounds of regeneration of the sensing interface.

New X-ray-induced photodynamic therapy system

19 June 2018:

Researchers from CNBP have developed an X-ray-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) system where nanoparticles incorporating a photosensitizer, verteporfin, were triggered by X-ray radiation to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen. This system offers the possibility of enhancing the radiation therapy commonly prescribed for the treatment of cancer by simultaneous PDT.

Lead author on the paper was Dr Sandhya Clement (pictured).

Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine.

Publication title: X-ray radiation-induced and targeted photodynamic therapy with folic acid-conjugated biodegradable nanoconstructs.

Authors: Sandhya Clement, Wenjie Chen, Wei Deng, Ewa M Goldys.

Abstract:
Introduction: The depth limitation of conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) with visible electromagnetic radiation represents a challenge for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. Materials and methods: To overcome this issue, we developed an X-ray-induced PDT system where poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating a photosensitizer (PS), verteporfin (VP), were triggered by 6 MeV X-ray radiation to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen. The X-ray radiation used in this study allows this system to breakthrough the PDT depth barrier due to excellent penetration of 6 MeV X-ray radiation through biological tissue. In addition, the conjugation of our NPs with folic acid moieties enables specific targeting of HCT116 cancer cells that overexpress the folate receptors. We carried out physiochemical characterization of PLGA NPs, such as size distribution, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro release of VP. Cellular uptake activity and cell-killing effect of these NPs were also evaluated. Results and discussion: Our results indicate that our nanoconstructs triggered by 6 MeV X-ray radiation yield enhanced PDT efficacy compared with the radiation alone. We attributed the X-ray-induced singlet oxygen generation from the PS, VP, to photoexcitation by Cherenkov radiation and/or reactive oxygen species generation facilitated by energetic secondary electrons produced in the tissue. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect caused by VP offers the possibility of enhancing the radiation therapy commonly prescribed for the treatment of cancer by simultaneous PDT.

 

Advanced sensor to unlock the secrets of the brain

17 April 2018:

CNBP researchers have announced the development of a state-of-the-art sensor that can for the first time detect signalling molecules, called cytokines, which operate in the living brain. Cytokines in the brain are secreted by glia cells that make up nearly 90% of all brain cells. Cytokines play a central role in controlling mood and cognition and may also contribute to a number of mental health disorders.

“What we’ve developed is the first sensor capable of monitoring the release of these cytokines in the brain,” says lead researcher Kaixin Zhang, a PhD candidate at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) at Macquarie University.

“Critically, there is mounting evidence that these glial-released cytokines play a central role in regulating a range of brain functions. In particular they are responsible for affecting mood, cognition and behaviour.”

“Our innovative new sensor has the potential to increase our knowledge not only of how the brain works, but may be able to shed light on conditions such as depression, stress, anxiety and even schizophrenia,” he says.

The sensor consists of a modified optical fibre which has had its surface treated with a capture protein. The protein reacts to the presence of cytokine molecules and is capable of monitoring local cytokine release in discrete and targeted parts of the brain.

Professor Ewa Goldys, CNBP Deputy Director, and a senior researcher on the project, notes that brain functionality is an extremely complex area where scientific knowledge is still limited.

“Our research in understanding cytokine secretion, neural circuits and how these two work together is essential to improving our understanding of the brain, in health and disease. Our sensor has opened a new window to the brain, but we still have far more to discover,” she says.

“The key benefit of our new sensor is that it enables the detection of cytokine release precisely as it happens, in living, naturally behaving animals, which is the key step on this discovery journey. To date, suitable tools have not been available to do this as the living brain is an incredibly difficult part of the body to access, and these cytokines are very difficult to measure.”

Published in the leading scientific journal ‘Brain, Behavior, and Immunity’, the cytokine sensor research was undertaken by an international team of scientists at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), Macquarie University, University of Colorado Boulder, Central China Normal University and The University of Adelaide.

“This is a really fantastic example of the work which we do at the CNBP, which is all about creating state-of-the-art sensing tools that can measure the inner workings of the living organism,” says Prof Goldys.

“It may be early days in this research but it will be fascinating to see where this cytokine detection takes us. It may prove to be a pivotal point in the understanding, and eventual diagnostic and clinical treatment, of a whole range of health conditions.”

PAPER:
A novel platform for in vivo detection of cytokine release within discrete brain regions. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159118301302

AUTHORS: Kaixin Zhang, Michael V. Baratta, Guozhen Liu, Matthew G. Frank, Nathan R. Leslie, Linda R. Watkins, Steven F. Maier, Mark R. Hutchinson, Ewa M. Goldys.

Below – CNBP PhD Candidate – Kaixin Zhang.

Aptasensors and cytokine detection

10 March 2018:

A new review paper summarising recent advances in aptamer-based biosensors with a specific focus on cytokine sensing has been published in the journal ‘Trends in Analytical Chemistry’. The paper includes CNBP coauthors Fuyuan Zhang, Ewa M.Goldys and Guozhen Liu (pictured).

Journal: Trends in Analytical Chemistry.

Publication title: Advances in Structure-Switching Aptasensing Towards Real Time Detection of Cytokines.

Authors: C. Cao, F. Zhang, E.M. Goldys, G. Liu.

Abstract: Structure-switching aptamer-based biosensors (aptasensors) provide a promising strategy for real-time or near real-time monitoring of analytes in vivo, owing to their reversibility, the versatility of methods available to engineer the aptamer switches, and the ability to tune their dynamic range. Monitoring cell-to-cell communication through cytokine secretions has enormous value in biology and medicine. However, cytokine detection is challenging due to the extremely dynamic, transient cytokine secretion process, and typically low abundances in physiological conditions. Here, we summarise recent advances in structure-switching signaling aptamer-based biosensing with specific focus on cytokine sensing. This Review begins with the survey of cytokine-specific aptamers followed by the designs of elegant sensing platforms based on structure-switching aptamers with different signal readouts such as optic, electrochemistry, and other types. We describe the strategies of signal amplification in aptasensors, and highlight future perspectives of aptasensors for real-time or near real-time detection of cytokines.

Goldys on ‘Key Thinkers’ panel

8 February 2018:

The ability to develop a holistic and interdisciplinary vision was raised as a key attribute and skill by CNBP Deputy Director Prof Ewa Goldys at today’s ‘Key Thinkers – Key Concepts – Scholarly Gaze’ panel discussion, coordinated by the Faculty of Human Sciences, based at Macquarie University.

The event, consisting of prominent scientific speakers across differing disciplines, looked to better define the process of ‘seeing’ and ‘observation’ within the higher education research environment. Discussed were the use of technologies and techniques to help support advanced scientific theory development as well as best-practice methodology and laboratory experimentation.

Goldys, Professor at UNSW and Adjunct Professor at Macquarie University noted the advantages of having alternate vantage points and expertise from differing disciplines in her imaging, visualisation and cell colour research at the CNBP.

“It is the ability to bring together multiple disciplines and areas  – such as physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and materials science – that allows for the big science and health questions to be explored and then answered,” she said.

Below – Prof Ewa Goldys discussing the way in which she has successfully combined computer analysis with microscopy, to extract highly detailed cellular information that can help distinguish between healthy and diseased cells.

Prof Ewa Goldys recognised as SPIE Fellow

30 January 2018:

Today Professor Ewa Goldys, Professor at the Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering at UNSW and Deputy Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), was recognised as a Fellow of SPIE.

Fellows are SPIE Members of distinction who have made significant scientific and technical contributions in the multidisciplinary fields of optics, photonics, and imaging.

Professor Goldys was honoured by the recognition with the Fellowship citation noting her “achievements in optical characterisation of nanomaterials, biochemical and medical sensing.”

“I see this award as a mark of acknowledgement of the Australian standing in the international biophotonics community. I am very proud of my new role in SPIE. As a Society, SPIE plays such a pivotal role in the development of biophotonics and its translation to industry,” she said.

SPIE is an international society advancing an interdisciplinary approach to the science and application of light.

Founded in 1955 this professional organisation promotes information exchange though conferences and publications, supports continuing education, career development, and engages in advocacy.

Below – Prof Ewa Goldys at the Fellows reception.

CNBP at ‘Science meets Business’

9 November 2017:

As silver sponsor at the annual STA ‘Science meets Business’ event held in Sydney, November 9th 2017, CNBP was extremely well represented, supporting a push to improve engagement and collaboration between the research sector and Australian industry.

In addition to having numerous Centre scientists in attendance – those with a strong interest and focus on commercialisation and translation of research, CNBP also had  senior personnel speak and present in a variety of capacities.

This included CNBP Director Prof Mark Hutchinson (pictured top left), who together with  Andrew Grant (Availer) discussed CNBP’s commercialisation success and the taking of ideas from ‘boom to the showroom.’  Deep dive (idea creation), value-add solutions, solving pain points and interesting new jobs were all touched upon in a quick fire exchange of views.

Additionally, Centre Investigator and Miniprobes founder Prof Robert McLaughlin participated in the ‘soapbox sesssion’ where three competitively-selected ‘soapbox leaders’ made compelling pitches, sparking robust discussion as they quizzed delegates for perspectives on new ideas to create useful collaboration.

“It was great to be at this years ‘Science meets Business’, bringing CNBP science and innovation to industry and learnings back again,” concluded Prof Hutchinson. “I look forward to hearing about other successful collaborations at next year’s STA event.”

Below – CNBP Investigator and founder of Miniprobes Prof Robert McLaughlin pitches his smart needle to a science/business audience.

 

 

Prof Goldys elected as ATSE Fellow

11 October 2017:

Fluorescence expert Ewa Goldys, Deputy Director at the CNBP and Professor at Macquarie University, has been elected as a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE).

The Fellowship recognises Professor Goldys’ pioneering research in non-invasive medical diagnostics, and her work associated with fluorescence, advanced materials and biomedicine, supporting clinicians in making improved diagnosis and health decisions for patients.

“It’s a great pleasure to be recognised with this Fellowship”, says Professor Goldys.

“The ATSE is a respected Australian body which provides informed and visionary views to decision-makers across a wide range of technology focused areas. I look forward to providing my input and advice as a member of this prestigious organisation.”

As a world leader in the study of cellular fluorescence, Professor Goldys is also a former Eureka Prize winner for her innovative use of technology. This prize was awarded for her work in developing revolutionary imaging techniques, allowing for the extraction of biomolecular information hidden in fluorescent colour signatures of living cells and tissues.

“Modern day microscopes and powerful computer analysis enables colour to be used as a uniquely powerful diagnostic tool in medicine,” she says.

“Exploring the subtle colour differentiations of cells and tissue lets us distinguish between healthy and diseased cells in areas as diverse as embryology, neurodegeneration, cancer and diabetes.”

As an ATSE Fellow, Professor Goldys will provide expertise across biomedical, nanotechnology and biophotonics areas. She will also be able to tap into the knowledge and capability of her research and industry collaborators.

“Australia needs to harness technology and innovation as part of its successful transition to a knowledge based economy,” says Professor Goldys. “This is what the ATSE mandate is all about.”

Recognising Australia’s leading minds in technology, science and engineering, the prestigious ATSE Fellowships are awarded to people who apply technology in smart, strategic ways for social, environmental and economic benefit.

Fellows advise government, industry and the community on how technology can improve the quality of life of all Australians and are drawn from academia, government, industry and research sectors.

The ATSE Fellowship announcement is accessible online from the ATSE web site.

Automated image analysis aids bladder cancer diagnosis

28 September 2017:

An automated image analysis technique has been developed by CNBP researchers (lead researcher Dr Martin Gosnell pictured) that is able to aid in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, and could potentially reduce the number of biopsies being taken unnecessarily.

Read the full article detailing the research and future opportunities, featured in Optics.org.

New technique to aid bladder cancer diagnosis

25 September 2017:

A new and innovative automated computer technique has been developed by CNBP researchers that is able to significantly aid in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.

The technique—which allows suspect lesion images to be quickly and effectively analysed and then classified for cancer risk, has been reported in the medical journal ‘Urologic Oncology’.

“What we’ve done is develop a computer program to carry out an automated analysis of cystoscopy images,” says lead author of the research, Dr Martin Gosnell, Researcher at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) at Macquarie University and Director at Quantitative Pty Ltd.

Cystoscopy is one of the most reliable methods for diagnosing bladder cancer explains Dr Gosnell.

“Images are taken of the bladder and its insides for suspicious lesions during a routine clinical patient evaluation. Dependent on the findings, this initial scan can then be followed up by a referral to a more experienced urologist, and a biopsy of the suspicious tissue can be undertaken.”

The issue says Dr Gosnell is that the clinician examining the initial images makes a visual judgement based on their professional expertise as to the next steps of action that should be undertaken—such as the need to take a biopsy for subsequent pathological analysis.

“Potential errors and unnecessary further interventions may result from the subjective character of this initial visual assessment.”

“What we’ve done,” says Dr Gosnell, “is to create an automated image analysis technique which can identify tissue and lesions as either high-risk or minimal-risk.”

Read the full CNBP media release and the science paper here.

Journal: Urologic Oncology.

Publication title: Computer-assisted cystoscopy diagnosis of bladder cancer.

Authors: Martin E. Gosnell (pictured top), Dmitry M. Polikarpov, Ewa M. Goldys, Andrei V. Zvyagin and David A. Gillatt.

Abstract:

Objectives

One of the most reliable methods for diagnosing bladder cancer is cystoscopy. Depending on the findings, this may be followed by a referral to a more experienced urologist or a biopsy and histological analysis of suspicious lesion. In this work, we explore whether computer-assisted triage of cystoscopy findings can identify low-risk lesions and reduce the number of referrals or biopsies, associated complications, and costs, although reducing subjectivity of the procedure and indicating when the risk of a lesion being malignant is minimal.

Materials and methods

Cystoscopy images taken during routine clinical patient evaluation and supported by biopsy were interpreted by an expert clinician. They were further subjected to an automated image analysis developed to best capture cancer characteristics. The images were transformed and divided into segments, using a specialised color segmentation system. After the selection of a set of highly informative features, the segments were separated into 4 classes: healthy, veins, inflammation, and cancerous. The images were then classified as healthy and diseased, using a linear discriminant, the naïve Bayes, and the quadratic linear classifiers. Performance of the classifiers was measured by using receiver operation characteristic curves.

Results

The classification system developed here, with the quadratic classifier, yielded 50% false-positive rate and zero false-negative rate, which means, that no malignant lesions would be missed by this classifier.

Conclusions

Based on criteria used for assessment of cystoscopy images by medical specialists and features that human visual system is less sensitive to, we developed a computer program that carries out automated analysis of cystoscopy images. Our program could be used as a triage to identify patients who do not require referral or further testing.

Below: Dr Martin Gosnell and Prof Ewa Goldys.