Dr Christina Bursill is the Centre for Nanoscale Biophotonics’ chief investigator in vascular health. She leads a research group looking at the underlying mechanisms for heart disease and a way to use photonics to detect it early on. Continue reading
The International Brain Research Organisation’s recent international meeting was a chance for CNBP researchers to present their intense focus on translational research, and highlighted the differences with other approaches. Continue reading
Professor Dennis Matthews is one of CNBP’s oldest friends, having been coming to Australia from his home in California each year for nearly seven years as a member of its International Science Committee.
“I’ve actually been coming here since before the CNBP inception. They were just getting their act together for the initial grant when I first visited,” he says.
Professor Matthews was trained as physicist, but for most of his working life he has been involved in the development of medical devices.
His multidisciplinary life is reflected in his position as professor at University of California Davis in both the Department of Neurological Surgery and the College of Engineering. He was at one time also director of UC Davis’ Center for Biophotonics, Science, and Technology.
“I was hired into the neurological department not because I knew anything about neurosurgery but because they wanted their physicians to have more opportunity to do early stage research, even before it could be translated to the clinic,” he says.
He “abandoned physics 30 or 40 years ago”, drawn to things that were more hands-on and, around that time, he met a medical doctor who wanted to develop better instrumentation.
“I told him I didn’t know anything about medicine so he should go away. But he didn’t.”
That started a long history of working with doctors and bioscientists to develop technology that helped in their work.
“Biological scientists are incredibly smart at what they do but they are not so smart at measuring it,” he says.
“I don’t know what their problems are, of course, so they tell me what they are trying to achieve and I tell them ways to get at the solutions to their problems – and we help each other along the way.
“What I like about it, and CNBP works very nicely in this respect, is that you ‘bootstrap’ it. I tell the bioscientists I can do something but I’m not quite sure I know how to do it. So they challenge me to make technology progress at the same time.”
He believes CNBP has some unique strengths – “I wouldn’t travel around 13,000km to come here otherwise”.
He was first introduced to the centre by the inaugural director, Professor Tanya Munro. “I thought she had an extremely good vision of where all this could go and perhaps an even better way of communicating that vision.” Since then, he says, current director Professor Mark Hutchinson has emerged as an incredible thought leader as well.
Professor Matthews says he likes the way the CNBP brings themes together and its “Mission Impossible” approach to throwing multidisciplinary teams of experts at problems.
As a technologist he was also drawn to the IPAS fibre optics group, and the way it was developing fibre sensors to interrogate places that might otherwise be invisible.
Two biological research themes particularly interested him.
“Many of the things here are important to me but there were two that were exceptional and that was Mark’s [Hutchinson] work on neuroscience applied to pain, and particularly his interest in developing a “painometer”.
He was also attracted to the IVF research under Chief Investigator Professor Jeremy Thompson.
“My daughter had two children by IVF and so my interests were already a bit piqued. But I was also interested to see if we could make the whole thing work better.”
Secondly was the possibility of making sure the highest quality embryos were developed and then implanted.
“That whole notion was extremely fascinating and provocative to me,” he says. “I think that we are going to learn how to make embryos healthier in normal conception. And if we can make the healthiest baby possible it can lead to a lifetime of good health.”
Personal experience also lay at the heart of his interest in Professor Hutchinson’s work on pain, which, while important to help people cope at a personal level, he sees as a potential solution to the opiate crisis.
“At the moment we are only delivering pain-masking drugs,” he says. “These powerful drugs don’t do anything except make people not care if they hurt – they still hurt.”
He is helping with the task of looking for biomarkers that might underpin such a measuring device.
“I think it’s possible, but I don’t know yet what the right measurements are,” Professor Matthews says. “And the problem with humans is there is no single recipe, so if we do get a panel of biomarkers that said my pain level was 6 it could be completely wrong for you.
“So we need some way to normalise it so we can say this is a baseline for an individual.”
Professor Matthews is particularly drawn to the CNBP’s focus on envisioning the ultimate translation of the technology.
“So instead of just filling the journals with more manuscripts it is also important in biosciences that you keep in mind that your work will, in the end, actually affect patients.
“The question we should always be asking is ‘how do we get doctors to have the latest technologies to work with?’.”
Researchers have found a way to identify multiple cell signalling proteins using a single cell rather than the billions of cells used previously.
The new measurement technology, developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics, brings precision medicine a step closer.
“Cells secrete various messenger molecules, such as cytokines. They may indicate the presence of a disease or act as a driver of key therapeutic effects,” says Dr Guozhen Liu, lead author of paper detailing the technology.
The method, termed OnCELISA, uses antibodies attached on specially engineered cell surfaces to capture cytokine molecules before they have a chance to disperse away from the cell.
The secreted messenger proteins such as cytokines are reported, at the single cell level, by using fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles.
Cytokines secreted from cells play a critical role in controlling many physiological functions, including immunity, inflammation, response to cancer, and tissue repair.
The OnCELISA system can be used for ultrasensitive monitoring of cytokine release by individual cells, and it can also help discover cell populations with therapeutic value.
“The ability to identify and select cell populations based on their cytokine release is particularly valuable in commercial cell technologies and it can help develop unique products, such as future non-opioid pain relief” says Dr Liu.
“Importantly, our design uses commercially available reagents only, so it can be easily reproduced by others,” she adds.
While the published work focuses on specific proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β, the method is potentially suitable for a broad range of other secreted proteins and cell types.
The new technique represents an advance on traditional methods such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) that detect average levels of secreted molecules from cell ensembles.
The OnCELISA takes the ELISA approach to its absolute extreme, by detecting cytokines on the surface of individual, single live cells.
The publication has been reported by prestigious iScience journal and can be found at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589004219303578.
Publication Title: A Nanoparticle-Based Affinity Sensor that Identifies and Selects Highly Cytokine-Secreting Cells
Authors: Guozhen Liu; Christina Bursill; Siân P.Cartland; Ayad G.Anwer; Lindsay M.Parker; Kaixin Zhang; Shilun Feng; Meng He; David W.Inglis; Mary M.Kavurma; Mark R.Hutchinson; Ewa M.Goldys
Summary: We developed a universal method termed OnCELISA to detect cytokine secretion from individual cells by applying a capture technology on the cell membrane. OnCELISA uses fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles as assay reporters that enable detection on a single-cell level in microscopy and flow cytometry and fluorimetry in cell ensembles. This system is flexible and can be modified to detect different cytokines from a broad range of cytokine-secreting cells. Using OnCELISA we have been able to select and sort highly cytokine-secreting cells and identify cytokine-secreting expression profiles of different cell populations in vitro and ex vivo. We show that this system can be used for ultrasensitive monitoring of cytokines in the complex biological environment of atherosclerosis that contains multiple cell types. The ability to identify and select cell populations based on their cytokine expression characteristics is valuable in a host of applications that require the monitoring of disease progression.
By Patrick Capon and Kathryn Palasis
The current academic landscape demands ‘Publish or Perish’, but how do you make sure your publication stands out from the rest? Luckily for us, CNBP has identified this issue and developed a residential masterclass with a dual purpose of giving young researchers the opportunity to workshop a range of different manuscripts while growing team culture. Continue reading
CNBP researcher Dr James Quach is working on a quantum battery which, if he can demonstrate it works as the theory suggests, could revolutionise how fast we can charge electronic devices. Continue reading
Dr Kylie Dunning is motivated by creating a world where fewer couples struggle with infertility, an often invisible and stigmatised health challenge facing more than 15% of Australian couples. With lived experience herself of the challenges of starting a family, Dr Dunning is paving the way for couples to experience better, and more effective fertility care, through the creation of exciting new technologies. Continue reading
The CNBP and its researchers are taking part in a wide range of activities for National Science Week.
This Thursday 8 August researcher Dr Wei Deng from UNSW Sydney will explain how nanotechnogy is changing how we treat cancer, as part of Inspiring Australia’s Talking Science series.
It will be held at the Max Webber Library, in Blacktown, Sydney. More details here.
On Sunday, 11 August, Adelaide University’s Lyndsey Collins-Praino will host Kids Navigate Neuroscience, an event at which children aged 4-10 can explore how the brain works in a fun and hands-on way by participating in a series of interactive neuroscience exhibits.
On Tuesday 13 August explore medical brain research by joining Dr Lindsay Parker, a researcher at Macquarie University, as she discusses how she is trying to create better medicines for Alzheimer’s, chronic pain and brain cancer, by only targeting the unhealthy cells in the brain.
This event is part of Inspiring Australia’s Talking Science series as part of National Science Week. Bookings available now. Contact details:
Castle Hill Library
The Hills Shire Library Service
Phone: 02 9761 4510
There is a fun evening next Friday, 16 August, at the Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, where you can explore the neuroscience of sex, drugs and salsa dancing.
A series of interactive exhibits will address questions such as, what role does the brain play in sexual attraction? Can you salsa dance your way to a healthy brain? How does the brain perceive different flavours when drinking wine, and how can pairing wine with different foods alter this perception?
Also next Friday, 16 August, the whole family is invited to see some amazing short videos on a massive screen in a free National Science Week Event hosted by STEMSEL Foundation Braggs Lecture Theatre, University of Adelaide AI Light Science Spectacular.
You will find out how the eye works, how NASA finds planets in other solar systems and how detected the edge of the Universe.
You will also explore light, from nanoscale biophotonics with CNBP research fellow Dr Roman Kostecki to exploring the Universe with Dr Jerry Madakbas, a photonics physicist who builds night vision sensors for NASA.
You can book through Eventbrite.
Also on Friday night:
What role does the brain play in sexual attraction? Can you salsa dance your way to a healthy brain? How does the brain perceive different flavours when drinking wine, and how can pairing wine with different foods alter this perception?
These days, you can’t seem to walk through the aisle of a grocery store without being bombarded by newspaper and magazine headlines touting the latest and greatest breakthrough in neuroscience research. But how can you tell fact from fiction?
Join us for this Big Science Adelaide event, held at the Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences (AHMS) building at the University of Adelaide, where we’ll explore the answers to these questions and many more!
More details at https://www.scienceweek.net.au/neuroscience-at-night/
Finally, CNBP researchers will be taking part in Science in the Swamp, a fun, free family festival of science displays, shows and activities on Sunday 18 August in Centennial Park, Sydney.
Join scientists as they show what amazing superpowers you find in nature – super sight, super hearing, super strength and camouflage are only some of the capabilities on show.
Be sure to put on your cape and dress up as your favourite superhero for this great event. You can find out more details here.
Almost all cells replace themselves by replicating, but when there are errors in DNA-replication, it can lead to diseases including many cancers.
DNA-replication is complex and involves a host of protein machinery. One of the most important is the protein PCNA, which helps orchestrate the process.
Adelaide University postgraduate student Aimee Horsfall, a member of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale Biophotonics (CNBP), was part of the team which analysed the structures of a number of proteins interacting with PCNA.
The work suggests that the 3D shape of these proteins defines how strongly this interaction occurs.
The research is important because, if we can understand what makes the interaction with PCNA stronger, and determine the optimal shape, we can develop a drug that mimics it.
This drug could bind PCNA and stop replication in diseased cells, offering a potential treatment for diseases implicated in erroneous DNA-replication, or as a broad spectrum cancer therapeutic.
Publication Title: Targeting PCNA with peptide mimetics for therapeutic purposes.
Authors: Horsfall AJ, Abell AD, Bruning J.
Abstract: PCNA is an excellent inhibition target to shut down highly proliferative cells and thereby develop a broad spectrum cancer therapeutic. It interacts with a wide variety of proteins through a conserved motif referred to as the PCNA-Interacting Protein (PIP) box. There is large sequence diversity between high affinity PCNA binding partners, with conservation of the binding structure – a well-defined 310-helix. Here, all current PIP-box peptides crystallised with human PCNA are collated to reveal common trends between binding structure and affinity. Key intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding networks which stabilise the 310-helix of PIP-box partners are highlighted, and related back to the canonical PIP-box motif. High correlation with the canonical PIP-box sequence does not directly afford high affinity. Instead, we summarise key interactions which stabilise the binding structure that lead to enhanced PCNA binding affinity. These interactions also implicate the ‘non-conserved’ residues within the PIP-box that have previously been overlooked. Such insights will allow a more directed approach to develop therapeutic PCNA inhibitors.
Keywords: PCNA, peptide mimetics, PIP-box, sliding clamp, DNA replication
A mini-project to map the hearing capability of zebrafish won Adelaide-based PhD student Mengke Han third prize at global neurophotonics summer school that brought some the world’s brightest minds together in Quebec, Canada in June.
Mengke represented Australia at the Frontiers in Neurophotonics Summer School, where researchers and students spent 10 days discovering the latest advances in live cell optical imaging techniques.
With a focus on the up-close workings of the nervous system, the school combined tutorials and hands-on experiments, delivered by experts in photonics and neuroscience.
“We used a relatively new and very powerful imaging technique called two-photon microscopy, to map the brain and neurons of living zebrafish,” Mengke says.
“Zebrafish are small and transparent so they are a convenient species to study in the lab.
“But everything we learn about zebrafish ear development and function, can be applied to human medicine. We can even test human genes in a zebrafish to see what influence they might have on hearing problems.”
With an undergraduate degree in biology and a master’s in physics, Mengke’s current PhD research looks at the development of voltage-sensitive nanoparticles for real-time monitoring of brain activity.
She is based at the Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing (IPAS), School of Physical Sciences, the University of Adelaide. She is also member of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP).