Monthly Archives: May 2019

What is the potential for CRISPT/Cas Multiplex Biosensing?

29 May 2019:

Recent publication by CNBP PhD student Mr Yi Li and team at the University of New South Wales explores the challenges and opportunities of working with CRISPR /Cas for multiplex detection

Journal: Trends in Biotechnology

Publication TitleCRISPR/Cas Multiplexed Biosensing: A Challenge or an Insurmountable Obstacle?

Authors: Yi Li, Linyang Liu, Guozhen Liu

Abstract:  Performing multiplex detection is still an elusive goal for molecular diagnostics. CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing has demonstrated potential for multiplex detection. Instead of being an insurmountable obstacle, CRISPR/Cas multiplexed biosensing is a realistic challenge with some recent successful applications. Strategic considerations are required to fully explore its potential in multiplex diagnostics.

Key Words:

CRISPR/Cas; multiplex; biosensing; diagnostics; nucleic acid detection

 

Pop-up science

25 May 2019:

CNBP researchers Dr Georgina Sylvia and Dr Erin Smith (in conjunction with Children’s University Adelaide) have taken their love of science to the public, demonstrating fun-filled experiments to budding young scientists at a ‘pop-up’ event titled ‘The Magic and Wonder of Science’. The event took place as part of the biennial ‘Dream Big Children’s Festival’, held in South Australia, May-June, 2019.

Attendees at the ‘pop-up’ outreach event saw science working in practice as well as real-life applications of differing scientific elements.

“We demonstrated numerous experiments to our audience including creating ‘Elephant’s Toothpaste’. This is a foamy substance caused by the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide,” says Georgina.

“Other experiments included a demonstration of atmospheric pressure with a jar of water, as well as the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze an everyday egg in a fry-pan. We wanted to inspire our young audience and to open their minds to the everyday science that exists all around them,” she says.

“Our show aimed to be a blend of entertainment and education with plenty of humor and laughs as well.”

Below – Erin and Georgina putting on their scientific show!

 

Cancer research to the public

20 May 2019:

CNBP AI at Macquarie University and Early Career Fellow at the Cancer Institute NSW, Dr Andrew Care, has presented his research to a packed house at a ‘Pint of Science’ public outreach and engagement event, 20th May 2019.

Held at the Nags Head Hotel, Glebe, Sydney, Dr Care talked about the latest in cancer research with a particular focus on a newly discovered class of biologically-derived nanoparticles (protein nanocages), and how they can be genetically-engineered to target and destroy tumours.

“Taking my science out to the public was great fun,” he says. “But more importantly it was a good opportunity to highlight that positive advances we are making in the fight against disease thanks to ongoing research investment in Australia,” he said.

Dr Care added, “I checked out Pint of Science for the first time last year. I saw a great talk by Dr Orazio Vittorio a cancer biologist from Children’s Cancer Institute Australia. After a chat at the pub about our research, we started a collaboration. A year later Orazio and I are developing an exciting new tool for cancer treatment! Together, we’ve also obtained research funding, and we’re about to file a patent and to publish our first paper together. None of this would have possible without Pint!”

“Talking at Pint of Science this year is my way of giving back and saying thanks for making a great collaboration happen…and maybe to find another awesome collaborator lurking in the pub again,” he concludes.

Dr Care’s research group combines techniques from synthetic biology and nanomedicine for the targeted treatment of cancer. More information on his exciting work can be found in his profile here.

Below – Dr Care presenting his research at Pint of Science, Sydney 2019.

Hemoglobin and its role in the oocyte and early embryo

6 May 2019:

Hemoglobin expression in reproductive cells and the role of hemoglobin on oocyte and early embryo development is the focus of this latest CNBP review paper published in the journal ‘Biology of Reproduction’ (lead author Megan Lim based at the University of Adelaide).

Journal: Biology of Reproduction.

Publication title: Hemoglobin: potential roles in the oocyte and early embryo.

Authors: Megan Lim, Hannah M Brown, Karen L Kind, Jeremy G Thompson, Kylie R Dunning.

Abstract: Hemoglobin (Hb) is commonly known for its capacity to bind and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in erythroid cells. However, it plays additional roles in cellular function and health due to its capacity to bind other gases including nitric oxide. Further, Hb acts as a potent antioxidant, quenching reactive oxygen species. Despite its potential roles in cellular function, the preponderance of Hb research remains focused on its role in oxygen regulation. There is increasing evidence that Hb expression is more ubiquitous than previously thought, with Hb and its variants found in a myriad of cell types ranging from macrophages to spermatozoa. The majority of non-erythroid cell types that express Hb are situated within hypoxic environments, suggesting Hb may play a role in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-regulated gene expression by controlling the level of oxygen available or as an adaptation to low oxygen providing a mechanism to store oxygen. Oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development occur within the low oxygen environments of the antral follicle and oviduct/uterus, respectively. Interestingly, Hb was recently found in human cumulus and granulosa cells and murine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and preimplantation embryos. Here, we consolidate and analyze the research generated to-date on Hb expression in non-erythroid cells with a particular focus on reproductive cell types. We outline future directions of this research to elucidate the role of Hb during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development and finally, we explore the potential clinical applications and benefits of Hb supplementation during the in vitro culture of gametes and embryos.

New cytokine sensing device developed

1 May 2019:

A molecular imprinted polymer biosensing device (developed on stainless steel) that can successfully detect cytokines has been reported by CNBP researchers. Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that stimulate surrounding cells into specific action and are important to an organism’s immune responses. The finding was reported in the journal ‘Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical’ with the lead author of the publication being CNBP’s Fei Deng based at UNSW Sydney.

Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical.

Publication title: Molecularly imprinted polymer-based reusable biosensing device on stainless steel for spatially localized detection of cytokine IL-1β.

Authors: Fei Deng, Ewa M. Goldys, Guozhen Liu.

Abstract: A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based biosensing device on stainless steel (SS) for detection of locally variable concentration of cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was successfully developed using a sandwich assay scheme. The SS surface was firstly modified with a layer of polydopamine (PDA) followed by the attachment of a layer of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) by electrostatic adsorption. Subsequently, the template protein IL-1β was adsorbed on the PEI terminated SS surface due to electrostatic adsorption. A PDA imprinting film was then in-situ synthesized on the surface of the modified SS substrate with incorporated template cytokine. Finally, the template was washed off the SS substrate leaving behind cavities with specific shape and capable of capturing cytokines thus forming a MIP biosensing interface. After exposure to the analyte IL-1β, the MIP biosensing device was incubated with IL-1β detection antibody-modified fluorescent polystyrene beads allowing to determine the amount of captured IL-1β based on fluorescence intensity. The device has been demonstrated to detect IL-1β with low detection limit of 10.2 pg mL−1, and a linear detection range of 25–400 pg mL−1. This MIP biosensing device can be regenerated more than three times with coefficient of variation 2.08%. The device was applied for the detection of IL-1β secreted by rat macrophages, where the good specificity and selectivity were achieved. MIP serves in this device as a superior substitute of antibody with exceptional stability and reusability. The MIP based biosensing technology presented in our work paves a new way for developing a universal and robust sensing platform for the detection of spatially localised small proteins with low physical concentration.