Monthly Archives: December 2018

Helping make brain surgery safer

19 December 2018:

Researchers from CNBP and the Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing, together with Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and University of Western Australia collaborators, have demonstrated  the potential of an ‘imaging needle’ for reducing the risk of dangerous brain bleeds in patients undergoing brain biopsy. In the journal Science Advances, the researchers describe how a tiny imaging needle can detect blood vessels with a very high degree of accuracy (91.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity). Pictured is corresponding author of the paper CNBP Investigator Prof Robert McLaughlin, University of Adelaide.

Journal: Science Advances.

Publication title: Intraoperative detection of blood vessels with an imaging needle during neurosurgery in humans.

Authors: Hari Ramakonar, Bryden C. Quirk, Rodney W. Kirk, Jiawen Li, Angela Jacques, Christopher R. P. Lind and Robert A. McLaughlin.

Abstract: Intracranial hemorrhage can be a devastating complication associated with needle biopsies of the brain. Hemorrhage can occur to vessels located adjacent to the biopsy needle as tissue is aspirated into the needle and removed. No intraoperative technology exists to reliably identify blood vessels that are at risk of damage. To address this problem, we developed an “imaging needle” that can visualize nearby blood vessels in real time. The imaging needle contains a miniaturized optical coherence tomography probe that allows differentiation of blood flow and tissue. In 11 patients, we were able to intraoperatively detect blood vessels (diameter, >500 μm) with a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 97.7%. This is the first reported use of an optical coherence tomography needle probe in human brain in vivo. These results suggest that imaging needles may serve as a valuable tool in a range of neurosurgical needle interventions.

Cellular glycan surfaces in the central nervous system

17 December 2018:

A review paper by CNBP researchers (lead author  Sameera Iqbal pictured) reports on the examination of cellular glycan surfaces in the central nervous system and links to disorders and disease such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and more.

Journal: Biochemical Society Transactions.

Publication title:  Understanding cellular glycan surfaces in the central nervous system.

Authors: Sameera Iqbal, Mina Ghanimi Fard, Arun Everest-Dass, Nicolle H. Packer, Lindsay M. Parker.

Abstract: Glycosylation, the enzymatic process by which glycans are attached to proteins and lipids, is the most abundant and functionally important type of post-translational modification associated with brain development, neurodegenerative disorders, psychopathologies and brain cancers. Glycan structures are diverse and complex; however, they have been detected and targeted in the central nervous system (CNS) by various immunohistochemical detection methods using glycan-binding proteins such as anti-glycan antibodies or lectins and/or characterized with analytical techniques such as chromatography and mass spectrometry. The glycan structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids expressed in neural stem cells play key roles in neural development, biological processes and CNS maintenance, such as cell adhesion, signal transduction, molecular trafficking and differentiation. This brief review will highlight some of the important findings on differential glycan expression across stages of CNS cell differentiation and in pathological disorders and diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia and brain cancer.

Super-resolution volumetric imaging

11 December 2018:

The Australian Research Council (ARC) has announced funding for a super-resolution imaging facility that will be the first of its kind in Australia.

The facility brings together a consortium of multidisciplinary researchers from leading Australian Universities, Institutes and Research Centres (including CNBP) to develop new capacities for materials science, photonics devices, engineering, and neuroscience, microbial and cardiovascular research.

At its core the A$3.0m ARC LIEF project will enable scientists to study the inner workings of cells in their native environment. This represents a step change from currently imaging isolated 2D cells cultured in a petri dish to future research that will reveal subcellular structures and cell-to-cell communications in 3D tissue in real time.

The National Volumetric Imaging Platform, as it is known, will be installed, maintained and operated by the Institute for Biomedical Materials and Devices (IBMD) at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) at RMIT University in Melbourne. This project is scheduled to be completed in late 2019.

UTS Professor Dayong Jin, Lead Chief Investigator of the project, said that the facility will give scientists a “new way to decode the complexities of life science machinery.”

“High-resolution imaging of the large volume of single cells and functional navigation of their interactions will allow researchers to drop into a ‘street view’ and observe the details of intercellular ‘live traffic’,” he said.

Prof Brant Gibson, Co-Deputy Director and RMIT node director of CNBP said, “I am very excited to lead the RMIT University node of the National Volumetric Imaging Facility and to work in collaboration with Jin Dayong, the UTS node and all of our collaborative institutional partners. This facility will enable us to image deeper within biological samples than we ever been able to before, with nanoscale resolution and extraordinary bandwidth stretching from the near-UV (400nm) well into the infrared (1650nm) spectrum.”

Prof Mark Hutchison, Professor at the Adelaide Medical School and Director of the CNBP at the University of Adelaide said, “This is an exciting development of advanced imaging infrastructure capacity that will allow a convergence of scientists from across the country to gain an unprecedented level of molecular insights into the complex systems and arrangement of cells in biologically relevant complex 3 dimensional environments.”

Participating Organisations include: Universities: University of Technology Sydney, RMIT University, University of Wollongong, University of Sydney, The University of Queensland, The University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, The University of Adelaide.

Institutes and Centres: Institute for Biomedical and Materials Devices, ARC Research Hub for Integrated Device for End-user Analysis at Low-levels, Institute for Molecular Horizons, the Heart Research Institute, ithree Institute, Centre for Translational Neuroscience, Australian Centre for Ecogenomics, ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics.

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Soft-glass imaging microstructured optical fiber

10 December 2018:

A proof-of-concept fabrication of a soft-glass imaging microstructured optical fiber has been demonstrated by CNBP scientists in a new research paper published in the journal Optics Express. Lead author of the paper is Dr Stephen C. Warren-Smith, CNBP Associate Investigator at the University of Adelaide who notes that it is envisaged that the glass-based optical fibers will find potential use in applications such as in-vivo white-light and spectroscopic imaging.

Journal: Optics Express.

Publication title: Soft-glass imaging microstructured optical fibers.

Authors: Stephen C. Warren-Smith, Alastair Dowler, and Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem.

Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of multi-core (imaging) microstructured optical fiber via soft-glass preform extrusion through a 3D printed titanium die. The combination of extrusion through 3D printed dies and structured element (capillary) stacking allows for unprecedented control of the optical fiber geometry. We have exploited this to demonstrate a 100 pixel rectangular array imaging microstructured fiber. Due to the high refractive index of the glass used (n = 1.62), such a fiber can theoretically have a pixel pitch as small as 1.8 µm. This opens opportunities for ultra-small, high-resolution imaging fibers fabricated from diverse glass types.