28 August 2017:
Researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) have successfully developed an advanced new imaging technique, which can help assess the quality of early-stage embryos.
The research, reported in the journal ‘Human Reproduction’ has the potential to significantly benefit the IVF industry of the future, improving assisted reproduction outcomes for women.
“We use a special type of imaging to show differences in the metabolism and chemical make-up of embryos before they’ve been implanted,” says lead author Dr Mel Sutton-McDowall (pictured).
“This technique can give us an objective measure of which embryo to choose as part of the IVF process.”
This ‘hyperspectral imaging’ measures light that cells naturally produce during their normal activities. The light or ‘autoflorescence’ produced changes according to the chemical reactions or metabolism going on in the cell.
Being able to measure embryo metabolism is viewed by many researchers as one of the most important factors as to whether a particular IVF program will be successful.
However, says Dr Sutton-McDowall, fertility specialists take a largely subjective approach in deciding which embryos should be used.
“Pre-implantation screening of embryos generally takes place under a normal optical microscope. Although it’s quite easy to discern poor embryos (due to differences in uniformity), it is far harder for the clinician to determine objectively, the viability of the other embryos,” she says.
“The challenge is how to choose the single healthiest embryo out of this group to maximise the chances of pregnancy.”
Dr Sutton-McDowall sees the use of hyperspectral imaging as a new tool that can be combined with other diagnostic methods to provide a more accurate and objective embryo viability assessment.
“The benefit of hyperspectral imaging is that it can capture information-rich content of inspected objects. It analyses every pixel in an image for its light intensity at differing wavelengths,” she says
“This lets us drill down and analyse the hyperspectral signature of each individual embryo, looking for known or anomalous characteristics. It lets us discriminate between embryos, but also measuring metabolic differences within individual embryos. We predict that embryos that have cells with homogeneous (uniform) metabolic profiles are the healthier ones.”
To date, this imaging technology has only been tested on cattle embryos but Dr Sutton-McDowall notes that the technique is extremely promising.
“It offers benefits of being a non-invasive imaging approach that provides real-time information to the clinician,” she says.
The paper is accessible online.
Journal: Human Reproduction.
Publication title: Hyperspectral microscopy can detect metabolic heterogeneity within bovine post-compaction embryos incubated under two oxygen concentrations (7% versus 20%).
Authors: Melanie L. Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G. Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D. Abell, Ewa M. Goldys, Jeremy G. Thompson.
Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity?
Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY
Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic. However, there remains uncertainty over the accuracy of current techniques, such as PGS and time-lapse microscopy, to predict subsequent pregnancy establishment.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION
The impact of two oxygen concentrations (7% = optimal and 20% = stressed) during post-fertilisation embryo culture was assessed. Cattle embryos were exposed to the different oxygen concentrations for 8 days (D8; embryo developmental competence) or 5 days (D5; metabolism measurements). Between 3 and 4 experimental replicates were performed, with 40–50 embryos per replicate used for the developmental competency experiment, 10–20 embryos per replicate for the fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence experiments and a total of 21–22 embryos used for the hyperspectral microscopy study.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS
In-vitro produced (IVP) cattle embryos were utilised for this study. Post-fertilisation, embryos were exposed to 7% or 20% oxygen. To determine impact of oxygen concentrations on embryo viability, blastocyst development was assessed on D8. On D5, metabolic heterogeneity was assessed in morula (on-time) embryos using fluorophores probes (active mitochondria, hydrogen peroxide and reduced glutathione), two-channel autofluorescence (FAD and NAD(P)H) and 18-channel hyperspectral microscopy.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE
Exposure to 20% oxygen following fertilisation significantly reduced total blastocyst, expanded and hatched blastocyst rates by 1.4-, 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, compared to 7% oxygen (P < 0.05), demonstrating that atmospheric oxygen was a viable model for studying mild metabolic stress. The metabolic profiles of D5 embryos was determined and although metabolic heterogeneity was evident within the cleavage stage (i.e. arrested) embryos exposed to fluorophores, there were no detectable difference in fluorescence intensity and pattern localisation in morula exposed to the two different oxygen concentrations (P > 0.05). While there were no significant differences in two-channel autofluorescent profiles of morula exposed to 7% and 20% oxygen (main effect, P > 0.05), morula that subsequently progressed to the blastocyst stage had significantly higher levels of FAD and NAD(P)H fluorescence compared to arrested morula (P < 0.05), with no change in the redox ratio. Hyperspectral autofluorescence imaging (in 18-spectral channels) of the D5 morula revealed highly significant differences in four features of the metabolic profiles of morula exposed to the two different oxygen concentrations (P < 0.001). These four features were weighted and their linear combination revealed clear discrimination between the two treatment groups.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION
Metabolic profiles were assessed at a single time point (morula), and as such further investigation is required to determine if differences in hyperspectral signatures can be detected in pre-compaction embryos and oocytes, using both cattle and subsequently human models. Furthermore, embryo transfers should be performed to determine the relationship between metabolic profiles and pregnancy success.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS
Advanced autofluorescence imaging techniques, such as hyperspectral microscopy, may provide clinics with additional tools to improve the assessment of embryos prior to transfer.